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FODMAP

FODMAP

FODMAP is an abbreviation of: Fermentable Oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. FODMAP’s are carbohydrates that are poorly digested and poorly absorbed in the small intestine. Those FODMAP’s will be fermented by bacteria in the colon. This results in the production of gases. Lactose, fructose, fructans and galactans are FODMAP’s.


Oligosaccharides: Fructans and galactans

Fructans and galactans are carbohydrates, oligosaccharides, which consists of a chain of several carbohydrates. Fructans and galactans can not be digested and absorbed in our small intestine, because our body does not produce an enzyme to cut the fructans and galactans into pieces. They will be transported to the colon, where they will be fermented by bacteria.

Fructans occurs in for example: wheat products, garlic, onions, leek, vigs, dates
Galactans occurs in for example: beans, legumes and cashew nuts


Disaccharides: Lactose

Lactose belongs to the disacharides of the FODMAP’s. Lactose consists of two monosaccharides: Galactose and Glucose. In our small intestine, Lactose has to be cut in two pieces (galactose and glucose) by the enzyme Lactase. In this way the small intestine can absorb the seperate monosacharides Galactose and Glucose. When the enzyme lactase is missing in the small intestine (lactose intolerance), the lactose cannot be cut in pieces and the lactose will be transported to the colon. In the colon, the lactose will be fermented by bacteria and this results in the production of gasses.

Lactose occurs for example in: Milk, yoghurt and whipped cream.


Monosaccharides: Fructose

Fructose belongs to the monosaccharides of the FODMAP’s. Some people have problems with the absorption of fructose in the small intestine. This is caused by a problem in the GLUT-5 system, which can absorb fructose in the small intestine. When the fructose is not absorbed in the small intestine, the fructose will be transported to the colon, where the fructose will be fermented by bacteria and this results in the production of gases.

Fructose occurs for example in: mango, asparagus, pear and apple.


Sucrose/saccharose

Sucrose/saccharose is a sugar and belongs to the disaccharides. Sucrose consists of two monosaccharides: Fructose and Glucose. In our small intestine, sucrose has to be cut in two pieces (fructose and glucose) by the enzyme invertase. In this way the small intestine can absorb the seperate monosacharides Fructose and Glucose. When the enzyme invertase is missing in the small intestine (sucrose intolerance), the sucrose cannot be cut in pieces and the sucrose will be transported to the colon. In the colon, the sucrose will be fermented by bacteria and this results in the production of gases.

Sucrose occurs in for example: Tablesugar, fruit, vegetables.

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